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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Direct Speech

Þ

Indirect Speech

simple present
He said, “I go to school every day.”

Þ

simple past
He said (that) he went to school every day.

simple past
He said, “I went to school every day.”

Þ

past perfect
He said (that) he had gone to school every day.

present perfect
He said, “I have gone to school every day.”

Þ

past perfect
He said (that) he had gone to school every day.

present progressive
He said, “I am going to school every day.”

Þ

past progressive
He said (that) he was going to school every day.

past progressive
He said, “I was going to school every day.”

Þ

perfect progressive
He said (that) he had been going to school every day,

future (will)
He said, “I will go to school every day.”

Þ

would + verb name
He said (that) he would go to school every day.

future (going to)
He said, “I am going to school every day.”

Þ

present progressive
He said (that) he is going to school every day.

 

past progressive
He said (that) he was going to school every day

Direct Speech

Þ

Indirect Speech

auxiliary + verb name
He said, “Do you go to school every day?”
He said,
“Where do you go to school?”

Þ

simple past
He asked me if I went to school every day.*
He asked me
where I went to school.

imperative
He said, “Go to school every day.”

Þ

infinitive
He said to go to school every day.

 

Direct Speech

Þ

Indirect Speech

simple present + simple present
He says, “I go to school every day.”

Þ

simple present + simple present
He says (that) he goes to school every day.

present perfect + simple present
He has said, “I go to school every day.”

Þ

present perfect + simple present
He has said (that) he goes to school every day.

past progressive + simple past
He was saying, “I went to school every day.”

Þ

past progressive + simple past
He was saying (that) he went to school every day.

 

past progressive + past perfect
He was saying (that) he had gone to school every day.

future + simple present
He will say, “I go to school every day.”

Þ

future + simple present
He will say (that) he goes to school every day.

 

Direct Speech

Þ

Indirect Speech

can
He said, “I can go to school every day.”

Þ

could
He said (that) he could go to school every day.

may
He said, “I may go to school every day.”

Þ

might
He said (that) he might go to school every day.

might
He said, “I might go to school every day.”

 

 

must
He said, “I must go to school every day.”

Þ

had to
He said (that) he had to go to school every day.

have to
He said, “I have to go to school every day.”

 

 

should
He said, “I should go to school every day.”

Þ

should
He said (that) he should go to school every day.

ought to
He said, “I ought to go to school every day.”

Þ

ought to
He said (that) he ought to go to school every day.

CONDITIONALS

Structure of zero conditional

If/when you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.

If/when you don't heat water to 100 degrees, it doesn't boil.

What happens if/when you heat water to 100 degrees?

 

Conditionals >> First conditional

Structure of first conditional

If I see him, I'll (I will) tell him.

If you don't hurry, you'll miss the bus.

What will you do if there is a problem?

 

Conditionals >> Second conditional

Structure of second conditional

If I had more time, I'd (I would) travel more.

I wouldn't (would not) refuse if you offered me $10,000.

What would you say if you met Queen Elizabeth?

 

Conditionals >> Third conditional

Structure of third conditional

If I'd (I had) known you were coming, I would've (would have) waited for you.

If she hadn't been ill, she would have gone to the cinema.

Would you have done it if you'd (you had) known earlier?

ENGLISH MONARCHS

  In Out Age Yrs Notes
Normans          
William 1 (the Conqueror) 1066 1087 60 21 Buried at Caen
William 2 (Rufus) 1087 1100 43 13 Shot in the New Forest
Henry 1 (Beauclerc) 1100 1135 67 35 Developed the Exchequer
Stephen 1135 1154 50 19 Time of turmoil & many Matildas
Plantagenets          
Henry 2 1154 1189 56 35 Did for Thomas a Becket
Richard 1 (Lion-Heart) 1189 1199 42 10 Largely absent
John (Lackland) 1199 1216 50 17 Signed the Magna Carta 1215
Henry 3 1216 1272 65 56 Provisions of Oxford 1258
Edward 1 1272 1307 68 35 Hammer of the Scots
Edward 2 1307 1327 43 20 1st Prince of Wales – Deposed
Edward 3 1327 1377 65 50 Crécy 1346; Black Death 1349
Richard 2 1377 1399 34 22 Son of the Black Prince – Deposed
Henry 4 1399 1413 47 13 House of Lancaster
Henry 5 1413 1422 34 9 Agincourt 1415
Henry 6 1422 1461 49 39 English expelled - France – Deposed
Edward 4 1461 1483 41 22  
Edward 5 1483 1483 13 3m One of the 'princes in the Tower'
Richard 3 1483 1485 32 2 Wicked uncle, or wronged by history?
Tudors          
Henry 7 1485 1509 53 24 Pacific rule
Henry 8 1509 1547 56 38 Fresh heir fiend!
Edward 6 1547 1553 16 6 Son of Jane Seymour & Henry 8
Jane (Lady Jane Grey) 1553 1553 17 9d Rapidly deposed & disposed of
Mary 1 (Bloody Mary) 1553 1558 43 5 Burned a few Bishops
Elizabeth 1 1558 1603 69 44 But was she illegitimate?
Stuarts          
James 1 (6 of Scotland) 1603 1625 59 22 Bible & Guy Fawkes
Charles 1 1625 1649 48 24 Executed
Commonwealth         declared 19 May 1649
Oliver Cromwell 1653 1658 58 5 Warts and all
Richard Cromwell 1658 1659 32 1 Abdicated in May 1659
Stuarts (restoration)          
Charles 2 1660 1685 55 25 Nell Gwynn
James 2 (7 of Scotland) 1685 1688 68 3 Deposed
William 3 & Mary 2 1689 1702 51 13 ‘Glorious Revolution’
    1694 33 6 Mary died of Smallpox
Anne 1702 1714 49 12 Sister of Mary 2 – Union with Scotland
Hanover          
George 1 1714 1727 67 13 Spoke no English
George 2 1727 1760 77 33 Battle of Dettingen 1743
George 3 1760 1820 81 59 Lost American colonies
George 4 1820 1830 67 10 also Prince Regent
William 4 1830 1837 71 7 Brother of George 4
Victoria 1837 1901 81 63 Empress of India
Saxe-Coberg/Windsor          
Edward 7 1901 1910 68 9 Waited a long time!
George 5 1910 1936 70 25 Changed surname to Windsor
Edward 8 1936 1936   325d Abdicated
George 6 1936 1952 56 15 World War 2
Elizabeth 2 1952        

Rhyme to Remember them by

Willy, Willy, Harry, Ste,
Harry, Dick, John, Harry three,
One, two, three Neds, Richard two,
Henries four, five, six – then who?
Edwards four, five, Dick the bad,
Harries twain and Ned the lad,
Mary, Bessie, James the vain,
Charlie, Charlie, James again,
William & Mary, Anna Gloria,
Four Georges, William and Victoria,
Edward, George, then Ned the eighth
quickly goes and abdicat’th,
leaving George, then Liz the second,
and with Charlie next it’s reckoned.

That’s the way our monarchs lie
since Harold got it in the eye!

  1. Sorry, Lady Jane Grey – you got the chop!

PHRASAL VERBS

 

A Night Out

go out / stay out / stay in / drink up / get back

 

An Oil Spill

clean up / wash up / end up / look into / pour out

Annoying People

wind up / fob off / talk down to / go on / cheese off

Anxiety

work up / smooth over / wind up / burst out / stress out

Archaeology

date back / derive from /dig up/ look into / send off

Arguing

take back / back down / spout out / come out with

Argument

lash out / bottle up / barge in / flare up / fall out

Assessing

measure up / go over / mark down / get through / look over

At the Beach

lie down / soak up / put on / wash off / eye up

Babies

look after / grow up / bring up / get on

Being Cold

ice up / huddle together / turn up / freeze over / thaw out

Being Involved (in)

count in / dabble in / want in / rope in / keep in with

Bicycles

pump up / go down / get on / lock up / fall off

Body Language

screw up / stick out / shrug off / spit out / look up to

Body Parts

head for / back out / eye up / shin up or shin down / back up

Business 1

take on / lay off / go under / pick up / take over

Business 2

wrap up / thrash out / set up / wind up

Business 3

set up / lay off / open up / dry up / take off

Buying Food

queue up / go off / sell out / run out of / buy in

Buying a Flat

see round / put down / do up / put in /move in

Cars

turn off / pull over / pull up / fill up / pump up

Categorising

pick out / sort out / line up / size up / sift through

Cease (out)

conk out / crash out / peter out / stamp out / drop out

Changing Mood

calm down / chill out / wind up / fire up / warm to

Changing Times

put off / bring forward / put back / slow down / speed up

Children

look after / dress up / tell off / bring up / grow up

Children Playing

run around / colour in / make up / chase after / fall over

Christmas Shopping

shop around / wrap up / think of / snap up / sell out

Cigarettes

light up / stub out / cut down / give up / end up

Cleaning

sweep up / tidy up / throw away / wash up / wipe up

Clothes

wrap up / turn up / hang up / zip up / hang out

Clothes

put on / take off / do up / wear out / dress up

Cold Weather

wrap up / do up / warm up / snow in / fall over

Competition

go in for / fall behind / catch up (with) / keep up (with) / drop out

Computer Viruses

send out / wind up / show off / back up / work out

Computers

boot up / type in / close down / scan in / run out of

Computers (2)

back up / shut down / go down / log on / boot up

Conflict

put down / tell off / pick on / wind up / push

Connections

tie in with / club together / gang up / go along with / grow apart

Construction

put up / knock down / do up / sand down

Continuing

carry on / hurry on / play on / keep on / stay on

Conveying Information

get across / go over / clear up / get through to / put to

Cooking

chop up / dish up / turn up / boil over / stir in

Court

swear in / bail out / break out / grass on / let off

Creating Ideas

think up / come up with / make up / rip off / dream up

Crime

break into / break out of / get away with / let off / hold up

Crime 2

make off with / get away with / stake out / tip off / break in

Criticism

run down / slag off / dish out / turn on / sum up

D.I.Y.

do up / cut off / sand down / knock down / plumb in

Danger

run away / stand back / deal with / look out / shake up

Deceiving

have on / pass off as / rip off / take in

Destroying

tear up / write off / screw up / smash up / knock down

Determination

go for / stick out / push on / give in / see out

Dieting

put on / cut down on / give up / take up / do up

Dinner Parties

invite round / turn up / serve up / wash up / go on

Discussing a Problem

talk over / break down / open up / calm down / sort out

Doing Nothing

skive off / lounge about / sit around / sit back / hang around

Dr.Grammar's Christmas

blow out / rustle up / swear off / knock back / come out in

Dr.Grammar's Holiday

pull over / drop off / throw up / phone up / look round

Dr.Grammar's Return from Holiday

cut out / look for / phone up / turn off / tow away

Easter

hunt for / gobble up / keep back / throw up / see through

Eating

dish up / cut down on / eat out / rustle up / dig in

Environment

give off / look into / cut down on / cut down / give up

Family

bring up / grow up / take after / tell off / get on

Feeling Superior

look down on / talk down to / put down / talk down / lord it over

Finance

get into / write off / pay into / take out / pay off

Fire in Edinburgh

break out / pull down / put out / burn down / rip through

Fireworks

go off / put out / let off / light up / stand back

First Aid

put on / go down with / pass out / cough up / fall over

Football

kick off / send off / play on / warm up / play off

Football

kick off / go through / send off

Forgiving

let off / put down / write off / gloss over / let go

Forming a group or collection (up)

team up / gang up / gather up / stock up

Freedom

break out / tie down / shake off / breeze in / go off

Freezing & Boiling

freeze over / freeze up / frost over/up / boil over / boil away

Friends

get on / cheer up / look out for / go out / come round

Gambling

put on / pay up / clean out / put up

Gardening

cut back / dig up / dig over / lop off

Give Away / Reject (up)

pass up / cough up / give up on / sell up / cast up

Gossip

pass on / listen in / leave out / go into / take back

Health

keep down / play up / pass out / sign off / see to

Hesitating

hold back / think over / weigh up / sleep on / spit out

Holiday Cheer

look forward to / dress up / wrap up / sleep off / put up with

Holidays

check in / lie around / put on / take in / check out

Honesty

have out / find out / make up / have on / own up

Housework

tidy up / sweep up / wash up / put out / wipe down

Improving

liven up / tone down / touch up / brush up/ round off

In a Hurry?

breeze in / bomb along / shoot out / zoom off / buzz off

Insomnia

wake up / drop off / roll over / get up / wind up

Joking

take off / wind up / crease up / laugh at / laugh off

Kitchen

wash up / chop up / put away / boil over / dry up

Leaving

see off/ clear off/ shoot off/ set off/ take off

Machines

switch on / plug in / turn up / break down / blow up

Mail

wrap up / tie up / send off for / send on / sign for

Making Decisions

think over / boil down to / get round to / put off / argue out

Making Excuses

turn up / come up / hold up / run out of / get through

Making Progress

plough through / plod away / go on / move on

Making Tea

fill up / put on / pour out / tip up / sit back /

Marriage

dress up / send out / run off with / live together / fall for

Mobile Phones & Driving

phone up / look for / plough into / veer off

Money

put by / save up / take out / pay in / pay off

Movement

stand up / sit down / crouch down / bend over / lie down

Moving House

move in / hang up / clean up / sort out / settle in

New Year Party

see in / stay up / count down / sleep over / blow up

New Year's Resolutions

give up / take up / go on / stick to / get round to

Nostalgia

hark back to / look back / blot out / go back to / put up with

Numbers

come to / add up / round up / average out / take away

Only Joking?

laugh off / laugh at / wind up / take off / burst out

Packing

lay out / zip up / fold up / roll up / take up

Parking

pull in / block in / pull away / back up / get in

Peace

step back / thrash out / call on / call off / cry out for

Persuading

push into / put forward / urge on / give in / give up

Problems

weigh on / weigh up / work through / get over / wrestle with

Production

run off / knock up / cobble together / put together

Propaganda

take in / see through / play down / lump together / fob off

Radio

tune in / call in / sound off / sing along / listen in

Reading

read out / flick through / read over / read up / pick up

Referring to the Future (ahead)

lie ahead / plan ahead / send ahead / look ahead / think ahead

Relationships 1

fall out / make up / back someone up / chat up

Relationships 2

fall out with / fall for / take to / let down / count on

Relationships 3

chat up / ask out / go out with / cheat on / stand up

Relaxing

kick back / chill out / wind down / drift off / sit back

Reluctance

drag out / wriggle out of / back out / chicken out / clam up

Responsibility

rest with / fall on / answer for / rely on / let down

Rubbish

screw up / throw out / tear up / get rid of

Rushing

hurry up / throw on / dash off / run around

School

keep up / catch on / let off / work out / speak up

Searching

sniff out / hunt down / find out / look up / look for

Sickness

take off / go down with / get over / wait on / strike down

Sleeping

turn in / sleep off / make up / nod off / wake up

Sleeping and Waking

drop off / crash out / doze off / come to / wake up / get up

Speaking

clam up / blurt out / shut up / speak up / cut off

Sport

warm up / go for / come on / kick off / play off

Start to do something (off)

start off / kick off / spark off / tee off / set off

Stop / Cancel (off)

break off / turn off / call off / ring off / knock off

Stop!

cut out / break up / clog up / cone off / back off

Students

read up on / look into / write up / write down / hand in

Studying English

note down / write up / go over / look out for / look up

Talking

talk over / find out / chat up / work on / go on

Temperature Metaphors

thaw out / cool down / hot up / boil down to / boil over

The Columbia Tragedy

take off / find out / break off / break up / break down

The Law

send down / lock up / fit up / get away with / get off

The Past

rake over / take back / long for / date back / bring back

The Rat Race

sell up / drop out / go off / do down / get by

Tidying

tidy up /put away / throw out / put aside / sort out

Toys

wind up / put together / take apart / play with / run down

Understanding

sink in / work at / get over / go over / break down

Visiting

drop in / see off / put up/ catch up

Visiting People

invite round / put up /come round / call for / drop in

Weather

snowed under / snowed in / rained off / storm out / cloud over

Working

work on / get through / get on with / take off / write down

Writing

jot down / cross out / rub out / put down / go over

Writing Essays

jot down / think of / write up / go over / hand in

 

ENGLISH JOKES AND RIDDLES

 

Riddles

 

Q: What are two things people never eat before breakfast?
A: Lunch and supper.

 

Q: Why did the man throw a bucket of water out the window?
A: He wanted to see the waterfall.

Q: Why did the man throw the butter out the window?
A: He wanted to see the butterfly.

Q: Why did the man put the clock in the safe?
A: He wanted to save time.

 

Q: What has two hands and a face, but no arms and legs?
A: A clock.

Q: What has a neck, but no head?
A: A bottle.

Q: Where is the ocean the deepest?
A: On the bottom.

 

Q: Why did the man throw his watch out of the window?
A: He wanted to see time fly.

 

Q: What State in the United States is High in the middle and round at the ends?
A: Ohio.

 

Q: "There were some twins. One was twenty, the other was twenty 2. One married the other. How can be this ?"
A: "One was twenty, the other twenty too. One was a priest so he married the other"

 

 

Q: How do you spell mousetrap?
A: C-A-T.

 

 


Q: How many legs does an ant have?
A: Two, the same as an uncle.
(HINT: ant = aunt)

 

 

Q: How many people are buried in that cemetery?
A: All of them.

 


Q: What can't be used until it's broken?
A: An egg.

 

Q: What do tigers have that no other animals have?
A: Baby tigers.

 

Q: What is Black and white and read (red) all over?
A: A newspaper

 

Q: Why is number six afraid ?
A: Because seven eight nine (seven ate nine)

 

 

Q: How do you know when a motorcycle policeman is happy?
A: He has bugs on his teeth!

 

Q: What did zero say to eight?
A: Nice belt.
(The 8 looks like a 0 with a belt around its waist.)

 

 

Q: What did number 1 say to 7?
A: Nice hair

 

 

In the alphabet...

Q: Which is the most self-centered letter of the alphabet?
A: "i" (I)

Q: Which letter is always trying to find reasons?
"y" (Why?")

 

Q: Which letter is not me?
A: U.

 

Q: What letter can do the work in one day that you can do in two days?
A: W (Double u- Double you)

Q: Why don't we need a compass at the North Pole?
A: Because every direction is south.

 

 

Q: Why is the A like a flower?
A: Because the B is after it

 

Why is the letter "A" like noon?
Because it's in the middle of the day.

 

 

Q: "What letter of the alphabet has got lots of water?"
A: "The C"

 

Q: "What letter of the alphabet is always waiting in order?"
A: "The Q. (queue)

 

 

Q: What has two heads, four eyes, six legs and a tail?
A: A horse and its rider.

 

Q: What is as big as a horse but doesn't weigh anything?
A: The horse's shadow.

 

  1. Why was the hearse horse hoarse?
    A. Because of the coffin

 

Q: Why are man with pierced ears better suited for marriage?
Q: Because they have suffered and bought jewelry.

 

Q: What begins with T, ends with T and has T in it?
A: A teapot.

 

Q: Do you know why birds fly to south in the winter?
A: Because it's too far to walk there.

 

 

Q: Why do birds fly south in the fall?
A: Because it's too far to walk!

 

 

Q: Which letters do Tuesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday have in common?
A: None! None of them have "c", "o","m" or "n" in them.

 

Q: What are the 3 important rings in life?

A: Engagement ring, Wedding ring, and suffering.

 

Q: Which room has no doors, no windows.
A: A mushroom.

 

Q: What gets wetter as it dries?
A: A towel

 

Q: A man rode into town on Tuesday. Two days later he rode home on Tuesday. How is this possible?
A: His horse's name is Tuesday.

 

Q: Why didn't the skeleton go to the dance?
A: He didn't have anybody to take. (any BODY)

 

 

Q: A father and his son were in a car accident. The father died. The son was taken to the hospital. The doctor came in and said: I can't do surgery on him, because he's my son. Who was the doctor?
A: The doctor was his mother.

 

 

Q: Why did the student take a ladder to school?
A: Because he/she was going to high school!

Q: Why did the tomato blush?
A: Beacuse it saw the salad dressing!

 

 

Q: What are the two strongest days of the week?
A: They are Saturday and Sunday. All the others are weak (week) days.

 

 

Q: How far can a dog run into the forest?
A: Halfway, after that he is running out of the forest.

 

Q: What do you call a bear without an "ear"?
A: BBBBBBB

 

Q: Which is faster, heat or cold?
A: Heat, because you can catch a cold.

 

A: How many apples can you eat if your stomach is empty?

B: 4 or 5 A: No, that's wrong, because after eating one apple your stomach isn't empty.

 

 

 

Q: Why did Mickey Mouse go to outer space?
A: To find Pluto.

 

 

Q: What is the differnce between the capital of Russia and a calf's mother?
A: One is Moscow, the other is a cow's Ma.
(It needs to be spoken to understand it.)

 

Q: What do you call a Spaniard who can't find his car?
A: Carlos
It's pronounced "carless" (meaning without a car)

 

Q: What's the difference between electricity and lightening?
A: You don't have to pay for lightening.

 

 

Q: What's the difference between a TEACHER and a CONDUCTOR ?
A: A teacher TRAINS the MIND and a conductor MINDS the TRAIN.

 

 

Q: What part of your body disappears when you stand up?
A: Your lap. (good for phrasal 'stand up', and 'laptop', lap-dog, etc.)

 

Q: What do you call a witch at the beach?
A: A sandwich.

 

Q: Why did the trafic signal turn red?
A: You would too if you had to change in the middle of the street.

 

Q: What's the difference between a lion with toothache and a wet day?
A: One's roaring with pain the other's pouring with rain

 

Q: Why are baseball stadiums so cool?
A: There is a fan in every seat.

 

Q: What do you call a person who speaks 3 languages?
A: (Try to elicit responses..) Tri-Lingual.
Q: What do you call a person who speaks two languages?
A: (Many of them know this one) Bi-Lingual.
Q: What do you call a person who speaks one language?
A: An American!

 

Q: What do you call a fish without an eye?
A: Fsh. (Hint: No "eye" = No "i")

 

Q: What has thirteen hearts but no body and no soul?
A: A pack of playing cards.

Q: What do you call a fish that only cares about himself?
A: Selfish.

 

Q: Why couldn't Mozart find his teacher?
A: Because the teacher was Hayden.
(Hayden --> Hidin' --> Hiding)

 

 

  1. What's a minimum?
    A. A very small mother!
    (mini-mom)

 

Q: Why can't a bicycle stand on its own?
A: Because it's two-tired (too tired)

 

Q: What do you get if you cross a pig with a karate fighter?
A: Pork chops.

 

Q: What's got a head and a tail, but no body?
A: A coin.

Q: What's got a wave but no sea?
A: My hair.

 

Q: What has three feet but no legs or arms?
A: A yard.

 

Q: Where does a boxer who weighs 135 kilograms sit on a bus?
A: Wherever he wants to.

 

What makes "oom" and gives milk?
A cow walking backwards.

 

 

Q: What does a man say when he walks into a bar?
A: Ouch!

 

Q: Where does Dracula stay when he goes to New York City?
A: The Vampire State building.

Q: What do cows like to read?
A: The mooooospaper

Q: What is the longest word?
A: Smiles, because there is a mile between the first and last s.

 

Re-worded by another teacher.
Q: What's the longest word in the English language?
A: Smiles. (Because there's a mile between the first and the last letter.)

 

A: What is the word that everybody always says wrong?
B: "Wrong".

 

Q: What five-letter word becomes shorter when you add two letters to it?
A: Short

 

A: What's the longest word in the dictionary?

B; Rubber-band -- because it streches.

 

  1. How many seconds are there in one year?
    A. Twelve. January second, February second, March second...

 

  1. What two days of the week start with the letter "T"?
    A. Tuesday and Thursday? NO, today and tomorrow!

 

Q: What did the doughnut say to the loaf of bread?
A: If I had as much dough as you, I wouldn't be hanging around this hole.

 

 

Q: Why did the pony have a sore throat?
A: Because it was a little horse. (hoarse)

 

Q: What did the undertaker die of?
A: Coughin' (coffin)

 

Q: Why can't a nose be twelve inches?
A: Because then it would be a foot.

 

Q: How do porcupines kiss each other?
A: Very carefully.

 

Q: What has four wheels and flies?
A: A garbage truck.

 

Q: What has teeth but can't bite?
A: A Comb.

 

Q: Why did the chicken cross the road?
A: To get to the other side.

 

  1. Why did the turkey cross the road?
    A. Because the chicken was on vacation.

 

  1. Why did the baby cross the road?
    A. Because it was stapled to the chicken.

 

Q: Why did the germ cross the microscope?
A: To get to the other slide!

 


A: Why did the chewing-gum cross the road?
B: Because it was stuck to the chickens foot.

 

Q: Why did the chicken cross the road?
A: To show the possum it could be done.

 

 

Q: Why do people call their own language their mother tongue?
A: Because their fathers seldom get a chance to use it.

NOTE: For this to be funny, students need to understand that in many cultures women have the image of speaking so much that their husbands seldom have a chance to say anything.

 

Q: A big moron and a little moron are walking across a bridge when the big moron falls off. Why didn't the little moron fall off?
A: He was a little more on.

 

 

Q: Name one eight letter word that has kst in the middle, in the beginning, and at the end.
A: "Inkstand", "in" is at the beginning, "kst" is in the middle, and "and" is at the end.

 

 

Q: When does a dialect become a language?
A: When its speakers get an army and a navy.

 

Q: What is a Honeymoon Salad?
A: Lettuce alone without any dressing.

 

Q: Why is it impossible to starve in the desert?
A: Because of all the sandwiches (sand which is) there.

 

Q: Why don't sharks eat clowns?
A: Because they taste funny.

 

 

 

Q: Do you know where people send a horse when it is sick?
A: To a horsepital.

Q: What did the doctor say when the invisible man called to make an appointment?
A: Tell him I can't see him today.

 

 

Q: Which 'BUS' could cross the ocean?
A: Columbus!

 

 

Q: What a bee says when it gets in the hive?
A: Hi Honey! I'm home!

 

 

Q: How do you catch a squirrel?
A: Climb a tree and act like a nut !

 

 

A: Why did the boy balloon chase the girl balloon?
Q: Because he wanted to see her bust!

 

Q: What do you call a fish with no eyes?
A: fsh (No letter "i", so no i's.)

Q: What do you call a deer with no eyes?
A: No idea. (No eye deer)

Q: What do you call a deer with no eyes or legs?
A: Still no idea.

 

Q: Where do cows go for entertainment?
A: They go to the mooovies!

 

Q: What animal is it that has four legs a tail and flies?
A: A dead horse!

A: What is the difference between a mail box and an elephant?
B: I don't know.
A: I'm not going to give you any letters to post then!

 

 

Q: What do you call 'a fly' without wings?
A: You call it 'a walk.'
 

 

I saw this on a web-site of musician jokes. It's not original, but I thought I would share it. Here it is:

Q: What's the difference between a musician and a savings bond?
A: A savings bond eventually matures and earns money.

 

 

Q: What color is a guitar string?
A: Plink!
(It is the sound the a guitar makes. The word sounds like the color "pink.")

 

 

What goes "ZUB, ZUB"?
A bee flying backwards.(Buz,Buz)
 

 


Teacher: What time is it?
Students: Umm, eight fifty-nine?
Teacher: Nope.
Students: About nine o'clock?
Teacher: No.
Students: What then?
Teacher: It's time to go home.

 

 

Q: What did one light bulb say to another light bulb?
A: You are the light of my life.

 

 

Q: Why did the golfer take and extra pair of pants for his Saturday round of golf?
A: In case he got a hole in one. 

 

  1. Why did the golfer wear two pairs of trousers?
    A. In case he got a hole in one!

 

Q: What flowers have two lips?
A: Tulips

Q: They travel all over the world but end up in the corner, what are they?
A: Stamps

 

Q: Why didn't the farmer cry when his dairy cow fell off the cliff?
A: There's no use crying over split milk.

 

 

Q: Ten copycats were sitting in a boat, and one jumped out. How many were left?
A: None. They were all copycats.

Q: What is the difference between a jeweler and a jailor?
A: A jeweler sells watches. A jailer watches cells.

 

 

Q: What is a bachelor?
A: A man who never Mrs. (misses) anyone.

 

 

Q: Why do cows have bells?
A: Because their horns don't work.

 

 

Q: Why do seagulls fly over the sea?
A: Because if they flew over the bay, they would be bagels!

 

 

Q: What's the difference between a trampoline and an English textbook?
A: You take off your shoes before jumping on a trampoline.

 

Q: How do you get ten English teachers to agree on the best teaching method?
A: Shoot nine of them.
(Use as an example of the insult variety of jokes.)

 

Q: Why were the little drops of ink crying?
A: Their mother was in the pen and they did not know how long her sentence would be.

 

 


Q: How many sheep does it take to make one wool sweater?
A: I didn't even know sheep could knit!

Q: What's a teacher's favorite nation?
A: Expla-nation.

Q: What's the most colorful state of U.S.A.?
A: Color-ado.

 

 

Q: In what state does it cost the most to live in?
A: Expennsylvania.

 

 

Q: What did the cannibal who was late for dinner get?
A: The cold shoulder.

 

 


Q: What do you call Santa's helpers?
A: Subordinate Clauses.

 

 

Q: What do you call a dog with no legs?
A: Why bother, he won't come anyway.

 

Q: How do you top a car?
A: Tep on the brake, tupid!

 

 

Q: Is there a word in the English language that uses all the vowels including "y" ?
A: Unquestionablely!
 

 

Q: Why do birds fly south for the winter?
A: Because it's too far to walk.

 

 


Q: What is the longest word in the English language?
A: Smiles. (There is a mile between the first letter and the last letter.)


Q: What is the tallest building in our town?
A: The library. (It has the most stories.)

 

 

Q: If you are Russian before you enter the bathroom and Finnish after you leave the bathroom, what are you when you are in the bathroom?

A: European.  (You're a-peein'.)

 

 

 Q: What do you call a test tube that graduates from high school?
A: A graduated cylinder

 



Q: Why did God create the man before he created the woman?
A1: The answer that men give: To give him the chance to enjoy Heaven on Earth for a few moments.
A2: The answer that women give: Everyone makes a draft first!

 

 

Q: How did Jonah feel after he got swallowed by a fish?
A: Down in the mouth.

Q: What did the monk say to the hotdog vendor?
A: Make me one with everything.

 

 Q: What did the fish say when he hit the wall?

A: Dam!

 

 

Q: A man was locked in a room with only a bed, a calendar, and a piano. How did he drink, how did he eat, and how did he get out? Another man was locked in a room with only a mirror and a table. How did he get out? A third man was locked in an empty room. How did he escape?

A: The first man drank from the springs of the bed, ate the dates off the calendar and played the piano until he found the right key, which he used to unlock the door. The second man looked in the mirror to see what he saw. Then he took the saw and cut the table in half. Next, he put the two halves together to make a whole. Finally, he crawled out through the hole. The third man broke out with the measles.

 

 

  1. What's brown and sticky?
    A. A stick!

 

Teacher: How can we get some clean water?
Student: Bring the water from the river and wash it.

EGZAMINY

CYLET(Cambridge Young Learners English Tests;3 poziomy:Starters, Movers, Flyers)
dla dzieci 7-12 lat, na poziomie odpawiadającym od 100 do 250 godzinom nauki, 2 razy w roku: maj/czerwiec i listopad/grudzień, lub na żądanie szkoły językowej (podstawowej), w terminie przez nią wybranym i w jej siedzibie;

KET( Key English Test)
dla początkujących, raz w roku: w maju;

PET( Preliminary English Test)
dla niżej średniozaawansowanych, 2 razy w roku: maj, listopad;

 

FCE( First Certificate in English)
dla średniozaawansowanych, 2 razy w roku: czerwiec, grudzień;

 

CAE( Certificate in Advanced English)
dla zaawansowanych, 2 razy w roku: czerwiec, grudzień;

CPE( Certificate of Proficiency in English)
dla bardzo zaawansowanych, 2 razy w roku: czerwiec, grudzień;

CCSE(Certificates in Communicative Skills in English)
na 4 poziomach: od początkującego do zaawansowanego, 2 razy w roku: maj - lipiec i listopad/grudzień

CEIBT( Certificate in English for International Business and Trade)
dla wyżej średniozaawansowanych pracowników międzynarodowych firm, 2 razy w roku: maj/czerwiec oraz listopad/grudzień

BEC 1, BEC 2 i BEC 3( Business English Certificate, 3 poziomy)
dla osób, które zajmują się lub będą się zajmować prowadzeniem firm, urzędników administracji oraz pracowników sektora zarządzającego, na poziomie od początkującego do zaawansowanego, 2 razy w roku: maj/czerwiec, listopad/grudzień (lub sesje specjalne dla zainteresowanych instytucji i szkół w marcu, czerwcu, sierpniu i listopadzie);

BULATS( Business Language Testing Service)
dla osób pracujących w biznesie, określa poziom znajomości języka u pracowników, stażystów i ubiegających się o pracę w danej firmie, na żądanie zainteresowanej instytucji (lub pojedynczych osób), w terminie przez nią wybranym i w jej siedzibie

IELTS( Internatational English Language Testing System)
test określający poziom, głównie dla kandydatów na anglojęzyczne studia (poziom zaawansowany), dwa razy w miesiącu, z wyjątkiem lipca i sierpnia (tylko w W-wie);

CommuniCAT( Computer Adaptive Testing)
test na komputer używany przez szkoły językowe, uniwersytety oraz inne organizacje w celu określenia poziomu zaawansowania swoich studentów; przeprowadzany na życzenie danej placówki

CIEKAWOSTKI

Porada pierwsza: Dla początkujących i tych, którzy nie wierzą, ile już umieją.

Pytanie: Czy można nauczyć się słów angielskich bez dużego wysiłku i czy można szybko nauczyć się brać udział w rozmowie?

Odpowiedź na zadane pytanie brzmi: Można.

Oczywiście lista zwrotów jest ograniczona, ale pozwala zrozumieć podstawowe rozmowy z życia codziennego i brać w nich udział. Aby zrealizować ten CEL :

1) Po pierwsze musisz sobie uzmysłowić ile już znasz słów w języku angielskim. Jeśli twierdzisz, że mało, to się baaardzo mylisz.

Przejrzyj tylko nasz polski język.

Oto przykłady:
Dziedzina: NAUKA I TECHNIKA ( tutaj możesz założyć, że prawie wszystkie słowa, które brzmią obco, są prawie takie same jak w języku angielskim z lekką różnicą w pisowni i mowie).

NAUKA I TECHNIKA

Język polski

Język angielski

 KOMPUTER

 COMPUTER

 KURSOR

 CURSOR

 TECHNOLOGIA

 TECHNOLOGY

 BIOLOGIA

 BIOLOGY

 POLITOLOGIA

 POLITOLOGY

 MATEMATYKA

 MATHEMATICS

 FIZYKA

 PHYSICS

 WIRUS

 VIRUS

 TEMPERATURA

 TEMPERATURE

 INTERKOM

 INTERCOM

 KOMUNIKACJA

 COMMUNICATION

 WIBRACJA

 VIBRATION

 TEST

 TEST

 TUBA

 TUBE

 OWAL

 OVAL

 TELEWIZJA

 TELEVISION

 WIZJA

 VISION

 TRANSMISJA

 TRANSMISSION

 SESJA

 SESSION

 LAMPA

 LAMP

 KAMERA

 CAMERA

Czy zauważyłeś, jak zmieniają  się niektóre końcówki wyrazów w obu językach?
Jest to już pewna zasada, którą możesz stosować, Nie martw się o wyjątki! Wyjątki stanowią niewielki procent. Jak znasz zasadę, to będziesz miał rację w 95%, a więc tylko w 5% będziesz błądził.

„Jedźmy” dalej:

JEDZENIE

Język polski

Język angielski

 KETCHUP

 KETCHUP

 HOT-DOG

 HOT-DOG

 PIZZA

 PIZZA

 HAMBURGER

 HAMBURGER

 DRESSING

 DRESSING

 SOS

 SAUCE /czytaj so:s/

 MLEKO

 MILK

 KAWA

 COFFE /czytaj kofi/

 WODA

 WATER /czyż bepodobne?/

 LUNCH

 LUNCH

 SÓL

 SALT /czytaj: so:lt/

IDENTYCZNE WYRAŻENIA Z RÓZNYCH DZIEDZIN

Język polski

Język angielski

 DANCING

 DANCING

 KAMPING

 CAMPING

 PARKING

 PARKING

 PARK

 PARK

 PARTY

 PARTY

 PLAYBOY

 PLAYBOY

 MAKE UP

 MAKE UP

 SUPER

 SUPER

 WIDEO

 VIDEO

 RADIO

 RADIO

 TRANSPORT

 TRANSPORT

 BUS

 BUS

SŁOWA BARDZO PODOBNE

Język polski

Język angielski

 FAJNY

 FINE

 FILM

 FILM

 PAPIER

 PAPER

 EFEKT

 EFFECT

 KOLOR

 COLOUR

 WAKACJE

 VACATION

 BIZNES

 BUSINESS /czyt. jak po polsku/

2) Po drugie: naucz się podstawowych zwrotów typu: yes, no, I don't know, I don't understand, What does it mean?, Hi, Goodbye, Thank you, I’m sorry, Excuse me,  please. 

3) Po trzecie: naucz się  podstawowych i  najczęściej używanych 100 angielskich słów. Musisz sobie uświadomić, że aż 50% rozmów w większości języków obcych odbywa się przy użyciu tych 100 słów. Jeśli je opanujesz, będziesz w stanie rozumieć połowę prostych dialogów. A oto te słowa:

about, after, all, am, an, and, are, as, at, back, be, because, been, big, but, by, came, can, come, could, day, did, do, down, first, for, from, get, go, going, got, had, has, have, he, her, here, him, his, I, if, in, into, is, it, just, like, little, look, made, make, me, more, my, no, not, now, of, off, on, one, only, or, our, out, over, said, saw, see, she, so, some, that, the, their, them, then, there, they, this, to, two, up, very, was, we, well, went, were, what, when, where, which, who, will, with, would, you, your.

Sprawdź ile z nich już znasz. Jeśli nie znasz, zajrzyj do największego słownika internetowego www.ling.plA teraz UWAGA!
Niestety istnieją słowa zapożyczone z języka angielskiego, które jednak w języku polskim NIE OZNACZAJĄ TEGO SAMEGO co w języku angielskim i dlatego nazywamy je FAŁSZYWYMI PRZYJACIÓŁMI.

 

SŁOWA BARDZO PODOBNE

Słowo angielskie

Znaczenie polskie

Fałszywy przyjaciel w języku polskim i jak to wyrazić w języku angielskim

 ACTUALLY

 FAKTYCZNIE

 AKTUALNIE - In fact

 DESK

 BIURKO

 DESKA - plank

 GYMNASIUM

 SALA GIMNASTYCZNA

 GIMNAZJUM - junior school

 KIT

 ZESTAW

 KIT- filler
 (albo pot. do kitu- crummy)

 LECTURE

 WYKŁAD

 LEKTURA - set text

 LUNATIC

 SZALENIEC

 LUNATYK - sleepwalker

 PATHETIC

 ŻAŁOSNY

 PATETYCZNY - solemn

 PENSION

 EMERYTURA

 PENSJA - salary

 SALE

 WYPRZEDAŻ

 SALE - rooms

 SYMPATHY

 WSPÓŁCZUCIE

 SYMPATIA - girl/boy friend

 

Ale nie przerażaj się! Pamiętaj co powiedziałam o regule. To są tylko WYJĄTKI, które występują WYJĄTKOWO i jeśli nawet czasami pomylisz się, to z kontekstu wasz rozmówca zrozumie, o co ci chodzi.
Na dzisiaj wystarczy.
W następnym odcinku dowiesz się  ile i jakich czasów ci potrzeba do przeprowadzenia większości rozmów oraz którymi czasami nie musisz sobie w ogóle głowy zawracać.

POZIOM EFEKTÓW NAUCZANIA JĘZYKA ANGIELSKIEGO

Poziomy efektów nauczania języka angielskiego wg. standardów Unii Europejskiej (CEFR).

Poziom nauczania

Nazwa poziomu

Efekty nauczania

Podstawowy

A1

Uczniowie rozumieją podstawowe instrukcje i są w stanie uczestniczyć w prostych, codziennych rozmowach.

Pre-intermediate

A2

Uczniowie potrafią przedstawić swoje opinie na proste, znane z życia codziennego tematy.

Intermediate

B1

Potrafią z łatwością rozmawiać na różne znane im tematy, wymieniać opinie o np. wydarzeniach politycznych i kulturalnych, a nawet dyskutować na abstrakcyjne tematy. Rozumieją także informacje publiczne i polecenia..

Upper-intermediate Upper-intermediate Business English, FCE, IELTS, Lower Advanced non-exam

B2

Potrafią płynnie rozmawiać na dobrze znane tematy oraz uczestniczyć w dyskusjach i debatach o zróżnicowanej tematyce..

CAE Advanced Business English Higher Advanced non-exam, Legal English, ICFE Higher Advanced English

C1

Uczestniczą z dużą swobodą w spotkaniach, płynnie wyrażają swoje opinie związane z ich środowiskiem pracy i codziennego otoczenia, aktywnie uczestniczą w różnego typu konwersacjach oraz potrafią używać abstrakcyjne zwroty i wyrażenia.

CPE

C2

Swobodnie potrafią rozmawiać na zarówno skomplikowane i poważne tematy, jak i abstrakcyjne, stosując bez problemu zawodowe zwroty i abstrakcyjne wyrażenia. Rozumieją i stosują niuanse językowe i kolokwializmy, potrafią negocjować, brać udział w naradach oraz dyskutować.

I więcej tekstu pod tabelkami!


-or vs. -our
   
American British
color colour
favorite favourite
honor honour
 
-ze vs. -se
   
American British
analyze analyse
criticize criticise
memorize memorise
 

 

-ll vs. -l
   
American British
enrollment enrolment
fulfill fulfil
skillful skilful
 
-er vs. -re
   
American British
center centre
meter metre
theater theatre
 
-og vs. -ogue
   
American British
analog analogue
catalog catalogue
dialog dialogue

 
-e vs. -oe or -ae
   
American British
encyclopedia encyclopaedia
maneuver manoeuvre
medieval mediaeval

 
-dg vs. -dge (or -g vs. -gu)
 
   
American British
aging ageing
argument arguement
judgment judgement

 

 -ense vs. -enze
   
American British
defense defence
license licence
   
 
Other
   
American British
jewelry jewellery
draft draught
pajamas pyjamas 
plow plough
program programme
tire tyre

Base Word American British
counsel counseling counselling
equal equaling equalling
model modeling modelling
quarrel  quarreling quarrelling
signal signaling signalling
travel traveling travelling
excel excelling excelling
propel propelling propelling


Spelling of verbs

Base form American British
to dream dreamed dreamt
to leap leaped leapt
to learn leareded learnt



Base form American British
to fit fit fitted
to forecast forecast forecasted
to wed wed wedded



Base form American British
to knit knit knitted
to light lit lighted
to strive strove strived


Use of the Present Perfect

In British English the present perfect is used to express an action that has occurred in the recent past that has an effect on the present moment. For example:

I've lost my key. Can you help me look for it?
In American English the following is also possible:
I lost my key. Can you help me look for it?

already, just and yet.

British English:

I've just had lunch
I've already seen that film
Have you finished your homework yet?

American English:

I just had lunch OR I've just had lunch
I've already seen that film OR I already saw that film.
Have your finished your homework yet? OR Did you finish your homework yet?

Possession

There are two forms to express possession in English. Have or Have got

Do you have a car?
Have you got a car?
He hasn't got any friends.
He doesn't have any friends.
She has a beautiful new home.
She's got a beautiful new home. 

 

American English - hood

British English - bonnet

American English - trunk

British English - boot

American English - truck

British English - lorry

Prepositions


American English - on the weekend

British English - at the weekend

American English - on a team

British English - in a team

American English - please write me soon

British English - please write to me soon

 

Past Simple/Past Participles

Burn / Burnt OR burned

Dream / dreamt OR dreamed

Lean / leant OR leaned

Learn / learnt OR learned

Smell / smelt OR smelled

Spell / spelt OR spelled

Spill / spilt OR spilled

Spoil / spoilt OR spoiled




COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

FORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE

Number of syllables

Comparative

Superlative

one syllable

+ -er

+ -est

tall

taller

tallest

 

 

 

one syllable with the spelling consonant + single vowel + consonant: double the final consonant:

fat

fatter

fattest

big

bigger

biggest

sad

sadder

saddest



 

Number of syllables

Comparative

Superlative

two syllables

+ -er OR more + adj

+ -est OR most + adj

ending in: -y, -ly, -ow
ending in: -le, -er or -ure
these common adjectives - handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet

happy

happier/ more happy

happiest/ most happy

yellow

yellower/ more yellow

yellowest/ most yellow

simple

simpler/ more simple

simplest/ most simple

tender

tenderer/ more tender

tenderest/ most tender

 

 

 

If you are not sure, use ''MORE + OR  MOST ''
Note: Adjectives ending in '-y' like happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc:. replace the -y with -ier or -iest in the comparative and superlative form

busy

busier

busiest

 

 

 

 Number of syllables Comparative Superlative three syllables or more more + adj most + adj important

more important

most important expensive more expensive most expensive

Examples:

a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest
b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest
c. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable

 

 

 

Infinitive

Past Simple

Past Participle

Polish Translation

arise arose arisen powstawać, pojawiać się
awake awoke awoken budzić się
be(am, is, are) was/were been być
bear bore born(e) rodzić, (z)nosić
beat beat beaten bić, uderzać, pokonywać
become became become stać się
befall befell befallen przytrafiać się
beget begot begotten zostać ojcem
begin began begun zaczynać
behold beheld beheld ujrzeć
bend bent bent zginać (się), schylać się
beset beset beset przeœladować
bet
bet
bet
betted
bet
betted
zakładać się, stawiać
bid bid bid licytować, oferować
bid bade / bid bidden / bid życzyć
bind bound bound wišzać, przywišzywać
bite bit bitten gryŸć
bleed bled bled krwawić
blow blew blown dmuchać, przepalać
break broke broken łamać, tłuc
breed bred bred hodować
bring brought brought przynosić
broadcast broadcast broadcast nadawać
build built built budować
burn
burn
burnt
burned
burnt
burned
palić
burst burst burst pękać
bust
bust
bust
busted
bust
busted
rozwalać
buy bought bought kupować
can could ( been able ) móc
cast cast cast rzucać (np.cień)
catch caught caught łapać
choose chose chosen wybierać
cling clung clung trzymać się kurczowo
come came come przyjœć
cost cost cost kosztować
cost costed costed ustalać koszt
creep crept crept pełzać, skradać się
cut cut cut cišć
deal dealt dealt rozdawać, zadawać
dig dug dug kopać
dive
dive
dove
dived
dived
dived
skakać do wody, nurkować
do(does) did done robić
draw drew drawn rysować, cišgnšć
dream
dream
dreamed
dreamt
dreamed
dreamt
œnić, marzyć
drink drank drunk pić
drive drove driven prowadzić (samochód)
dwell
dwell
dwelt
dwelled
dwelt
dwelled
mieszkać, przebywać
eat ate eaten jeœć
fall fell fallen (u/s)padać
feed fed fed karmić, żywić
feel felt felt czuć się
fight fought fought walczyć
find found found znajdować
fit
fit
fit
fitted
fit
fitted
montować, zakładać
flee fled fled uciekać (przed / z)
fling flung flung rzucać, ciskać
fly(flies) flew flown latać
forbid
forbid
forbad
forbade
forbidden
forbidden
zabronić
forecast
forecast
forecast
forecasted
forecast
forecasted
przewidywać
foresee foresaw foreseen przewidywać
foretell foretold foretold przepowiadać
forget forgot forgotten zapomnieć
forgive forgave forgiven przebaczyć
forsake forsook forsaken porzucać
freeze froze frozen (za)marznšć, mrozić
get
get
got
got
got
gotten
dostać, otrzymać
give gave given dawać
go(goes) went gone iœć
grind ground ground kruszyć, mielić, ostrzyć
grow grew grown rosnšć, sadzić, hodować
hang hung hung powiesić (coœ)
hang hanged hanged powiesić (kogoœ)
have had had mieć
hear heard heard słyszeć
hide hid hidden ukrywać, chować
hit hit hit uderzać
hold held held trzymać
hurt hurt hurt ranić, boleć
keep kept kept trzymać
kneel
kneel
knelt
kneeled
knelt
kneeled
klęczeć
knit knitted knitted robić na drutach
know knew known wiedzieć
lay laid laid kłaœć, położyć
lead led led prowadzić
lean
lean
leant
leaned
leant
leaned
nachylać, opierać się
leap
leap
leapt
leaped
leapt
leaped
skakać
learn
learn
learnt
learned
learnt
learned
uczy się
leave left left zostawić, wychodzić, odjeżdżać
lend lent lent pożyczyć (komuœ)
let let let pozwolić
lie lay lain leżeć
lie lied lied kłamać
light
light
lit
lighted
lit
lighted
zapalać
lose lost lost tracić, gubić, przegrywać
make made made robić
may might ---- móc
mean meant meant znaczyć
meet met met spotkać
mistake mistook mistaken mylić się
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood Ÿle rozumieć
mow
mow
mowed
mowed
mown
mowed
kosić
must ( had to ) ( had to ) musieć
overcome overcame overcome pokonywać
overdo overdid overdone przesadzać (z czymœ)
pay paid paid płacić
plead
plead
pled
pleaded
pled
pleaded
tłumaczyć się, błagać
prove
prove
proved
proved
proven
proved
dowodzić, udowadniać
put put put kłaœć
quit
quit
quit
quitted
quit
quitted
opuszczać, rzucać (np. palenie)
read read read czytać
rend rent rent rozdzierać
rid rid rid pozbywać się
ride rode ridden jechać
ring rang rung dzwonić
rise rose risen powstać, podnieœć się, wschodzić (słońce)
run ran run biec
saw
saw
sawed
sawed
sawed
sawn
piłować
say said said powiedzieć
see saw seen widzieć
seek sought sought szukać
sell sold sold sprzedawać
send sent sent wysyłać
set set set stawiać, zachodzić (słońce)
sew
sew
sewed
sewed
sewn
sewed
szyć
shake shook shaken trzšœć
shall should ---- będę (coœ robić)
shear
shear
sheared
sheared
shorn
sheared
strzyc (owce)
shed shed shed lać
shine shone shone œwiecić
shoe shod shod podkuwać
shoot shot shot strzelać
show
show
showed
showed
shown
showed
pokazywać
shrink
shrink
shrank
shrunk
shrunk
shrunk
kurczyć się
shut shut shut zamykać
sing sang sung œpiewać
sink sank sunk tonšć, topić
sit sat sat siedzieć
slay slew slain uœmiercać, zgładzić
sleep slept slept spać
slide slid slid slizgać się, wsuwać, przesuwać się
sling slung slung rzucać (byle gdzie)
slit slit slit nacinać
smell
smell
smelt
smelled
smelt
smelled
czuć, pachnieć
sow
sow
sowed
sowed
sown
sowed
siać
speak spoke spoken mowić
speed
speed
sped
speeded
sped
speeded
pędzić
spell
spell
spelt
spelled
spelt
spelled
literować
spend spent spent spędzać, wydawać
spill
spill
spilt
spilled
spilt
spilled
rozlewać, wysypywać (się)
spin spun spun przšœć, kręcić się
spit
spit
spat
spit
spat
spit
pluć
split split split dzielić, pękać
spoil
spoil
spoiled
spoilt
spoiled
spoilt
psuć, niszczyć
spread spread spread rozkładać, (roz)smarować
spring sprang sprung skakać, rzucać się
stand stood stood stać
steal stole stolen kraœć
stick stuck stuck wetknšć, przebić
sting stung stung kłuć, parzyć, szczypać
stink
stink
stank
stunk
stunk
stunk
œmierdzieć
stride
stride
strode
strode
strode
stridden
stawiać wielkie kroki
strike struck struck uderzać
string strung strung nawlekać, rozstawiać
strive strove striven usiłować
swear swore sworn przysięgać, klšć
sweep swept swept zamiatać
swell
swell
swelled
swelled
swollen
swelled
puchnšć
swim swam swum pływać
swing swung swung huœtać, kołysać się
take took taken brać
teach taught taught uczyć
tear tore torn drzeć, rwać
tell told told powiedzieć
think thought thought mysleć
thrive
thrive
throve
thrived
thrived
thrived
kwitnšć, dobrze prosperować
throw threw thrown rzucać
thrust thrust thrust pchnšć
tread
tread
trod
trod
trod
trodden
stšpać, przemierzać
undergo underwent undergone poddawać się (czemuœ)
understand understood understood rozumieć
undo (undoes) undid undone naprawiać, rozpinać
uphold upheld upheld podtrzymywać
upset upset upset przewrócić, zepsuć (zabawę)
wake
wake
woke
waked
woken
waked
budzić
wear wore worn nosić (ubranie), być ubranym w, mieć na sobie
weave wove woven tkać
weave weaved weaved kluczyć, przemykać się
wed
wed
wedded
wed
wedded
wed
poœlubiać
weep wept wept płakać
wet wet wet moczyć
win won won wygrywać
wind wound wound kręcić, nawijać
withdraw withdrew withdrawn wycofywać się
wring wrung wrung wykręcać (bieliznę)
write wrote written pisać

Simple Present

Simple Past

Simple Future


I study English everyday.


Two years ago, I studied English in England.


If you are having problems, I will help

I am going to study English next year.

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

Future Continuous


I am studying
English now.


I was studying English when you called yesterday.


I will be studying

I am going to be studying English when you arrive tonight.

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Future Perfect


I have studied English in several different countries.


I had studied a little English before I moved to the U.S.


I will have studied

I am going to have studied every tense by the time I finish this course.

Present Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Future Perfect Continuous


I have been studying English for five years.


I had been studying English for five years before I moved to the U.S.


I will have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive.

I am going to have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive.

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